Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy, 4 May, 2023, DOI：https://doi.org/10.1038/s41392-023-01422-7
Comparing T- and B-cell responses to COVID-19 vaccines across varied immune backgrounds
Zhen Cui, Wenxin Luo, Ruihong Chen, Yalun Li, Zhoufeng Wang, Yong Liu, Shuo Liu, LeiLei Feng, Zijing Jia, Ruixin Cheng, Jun Tang, Weijin Huang, Yanjun Zhang, Huawen Liu, Xiangxi Wang & Weimin Li
The emergence of adapted variants of the SARS-CoV-2 virus has led to a surge in breakthrough infections worldwide. A recent analysis of immune responses in people who received inactivated vaccines has revealed that individuals with no prior infection have limited resistance to Omicron and its sub-lineages, while those with previous infections exhibit a significant amount of neutralizing antibodies and memory B cells. However, specific T-cell responses remain largely unaffected by the mutations, indicating that T-cell-mediated cellular immunity can still provide protection. Moreover, the administration of a third dose of vaccine has resulted in a marked increase in the spectrum and duration of neutralizing antibodies and memory B cells in vivo, which has enhanced resistance to emerging variants such as BA.2.75 and BA.2.12.1. These results highlight the need to consider booster immunization for previously infected individuals and the development of novel vaccination strategies. The rapid spread of adapted variants of the SARS-CoV-2 virus presents a significant challenge to global health. The findings from this study underscore the importance of tailoring vaccination strategies based on individual immune backgrounds and the potential need for booster shots to combat emerging variants. Continued research and development are crucial to discovering new immunization strategies that will effectively protect public health against the evolving virus.