Small, 22 July, 2022, DOI：https://doi.org/10.1002/smll.202202294
Nanozyme-Based Artificial Organelles: An Emerging Direction for Artificial Organelles
Shuai Zhang,Ruofei Zhang,Xiyun Yan,Kelong Fan
Artificial organelles are compartmentalized nanoreactors, in which enzymes or enzyme-mimic catalysts exhibit cascade catalytic activities to mimic the functions of natural organelles. Importantly, research on artificial organelles paves the way for the bottom-up design of synthetic cells. Due to the separation effect of microcompartments, the catalytic reactions of enzymes are performed without the influence of the surrounding medium. The current techniques for synthesizing artificial organelles rely on the strategies of encapsulating enzymes into vesicle-structured materials or reconstituting enzymes onto the microcompartment materials. However, there are still some problems including limited functions, unregulated activities, and difficulty in targeting delivery that hamper the applications of artificial organelles. The emergence of nanozymes (nanomaterials with enzyme-like activities) provides novel ideas for the fabrication of artificial organelles. Compared with natural enzymes, nanozymes are featured with multiple enzymatic activities, higher stability, easier to synthesize, lower cost, and excellent recyclability. Herein, the most recent advances in nanozyme-based artificial organelles are summarized. Moreover, the benefits of compartmental structures for the applications of nanozymes, as well as the functional requirements of microcompartment materials are also introduced. Finally, the potential applications of nanozyme-based artificial organelles in biomedicine and the related challenges are discussed.