Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, 4 January, 2021, DOI：https://doi.org/10.1038/s41594-020-00537-7
TDP-43 aggregation induced by oxidative stress causes global mitochondrial imbalance in ALS
Xinxin Zuo, Jie Zhou, Yinming Li, Kai Wu, Zonggui Chen, Zhiwei Luo, Xiaorong Zhang, Yi Liang, Miguel A. Esteban, Yu Zhou & Xiang-Dong Fu
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) was initially thought to be associated with oxidative stress when it was first linked to mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). The subsequent discovery of ALS-linked genes functioning in RNA processing and proteostasis raised the question of how different biological pathways converge to cause the disease. Both familial and sporadic ALS are characterized by the aggregation of the essential DNA- and RNA-binding protein TDP-43, suggesting a central role in ALS etiology. Here we report that TDP-43 aggregation in neuronal cells of mouse and human origin causes sensitivity to oxidative stress. Aggregated TDP-43 sequesters specific microRNAs (miRNAs) and proteins, leading to increased levels of some proteins while functionally depleting others. Many of those functionally perturbed gene products are nuclear-genome-encoded mitochondrial proteins, and their dysregulation causes a global mitochondrial imbalance that augments oxidative stress. We propose that this stress？aggregation cycle may underlie ALS onset and progression.