Structures of Coxsackievirus A10 unveil the molecular mechanisms of receptor binding and viral uncoating
Ling Zhu, Yao Sun, Jinyan Fan, Bin Zhu, Lei Cao, Qiang Gao, Yanjun Zhang, Hongrong Liu, Zihe Rao & Xiangxi Wang
Coxsackievirus A10 (CVA10), a human type-A Enterovirus (HEV-A), can cause diseases ranging from hand-foot-and-mouth disease to polio-myelitis-like disease. CVA10, together with some other HEV-As, utilizing the molecule KREMEN1 as an entry receptor, constitutes a KREMEN1-dependent subgroup within HEV-As. Currently, there is no vaccine or antiviral therapy available for treating diseases caused by CVA10. The atomic-resolution structure of the CVA10 virion, which is within the KREMEN1-dependent subgroup, shows significant conformational differences in the putative receptor binding sites and serotype-specific epitopes, when compared to the SCARB2-dependent subgroup of HEV-A, such as EV71, highlighting specific differences between the sub-groups. We also report two expanded structures of CVA10, an empty particle and uncoating intermediate at atomic resolution, as well as a medium-resolution genome structure reconstructed using a symmetry-mismatch method. Structural comparisons coupled with previous results, reveal an ordered signal transmission process for enterovirus uncoating, converting exo-genetic receptor-attachment inputs into a generic RNA release mechanism.